When I was young and firebellied with my head bursting with education and the sheer thrill of being alive, I could have explained Kant's Critique of Judgment to you, and you might have even found my explanation interesting. But my memory and understanding of Kant's system of aesthetics have gone the way of my rudimentary understanding of the Russian language, so Прости меня. I do recall that Kant lays out his taxonomy of art at one point, and he places music in the highest, least touchable, most ineffable category, because - and I am likely getting this wrong - he argues that music is the artform least affected by reason.
There's, of course, much more to philosophy than Kant, but his ideas were the touchstone for pretty much all of Western thought. I forget which of his followers took his ideas of sublimity and attached them to dynamic conflict (Schopenhauer, maybe? This sounds like him). But whoever that dead German guy was, he was sure right.
One of the things that I most like to hear as a listener to music is the embrace of opposites, the way that great musicians take two mutually exclusive ideas and turn them into harmony - or, at least, a pleasing and harmonious disharmony or anti-harmony - without losing their essential components. This is sublime: the semi-synthesis of opposites. Arthur Lee, I say unto you, was a master of the sublime.
Arthur Lee was the frontman for Love, a multiracial rock band when there were few other multiracial rock bands. Love played music that was simultaneously crude garage rock and ultra-sophisticated chamber pop. Love's greatest album Forever Changes manages to rock like hell while rarely touching upon any of the key elements of rocking like hell. In his excellent 33 1/3 book on Forever Changes, Andrew Hultkrans calls Lee prophetic, visionary, and apocalyptic. He's dead right about the last two, but fortunately Lee is about as prophetic as The Book of Revelations, which is to say: not at all. But I don't know that anyone has ever created apocalyptic rock with the fervor of Lee. Most of his subject matter seems married to a metal sensibility, but, as I say, Love had no metal. And I generally can't understand metal vocalists, anyway.